Chicago style includes two types of citations: the first one is the author-date type, and the second one is bibliography and notes. Students should understand what system is better in each particular situation, so we decided to help you make the right choice.
Author-Date or Notes and Bibliography?
Notes and bibliography are a system used in many areas, including the arts, history, and literature. This system implies using numbered lists of sources in footnotes or endnotes. Every number in a list refers to a superscript number in the main text. In addition, there is a separate bibliography section with a list of all the used sources. This system of citations can be used when dealing with various sources, including non-typical sources which are impossible to cite using the author-date method.
The author-date method is popular in the sciences. Author-date citations are more concise and are usually written in parentheses, including only the author’s last name and the year of publication. However, in-text citations also correspond to a reference list that contains all the necessary bibliographic information.
Although these two systems imply using different types of citations, they also have a lot in common. Author-date and notes and bibliography citations have similar styles.
When choosing a citation style, most people make their choice depending on what style is most common among other authors in the niche. We also suggest that you check the requirements of a particular publisher.
If you want to learn more about Chicago citation style and its types, check The Chicago Manual of Style, chapters 14 and 15.